MATH GLOSSARY

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Title Description
Parabola The graph of a quadratic function is a Parabola, a conic section.
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Parallel Lines Coplanar Lines that never meet or cross are Parallel.
If lines simply never cross, they may be skew (non-coplanar).
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Parallel Planes Two distinct planes, collections of flat expansion of points, that never meet are considered Parallel Planes.
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Parallel Postulate Given a line and a specific point not on the line, there is only one line through the specific point parallel to the given line.
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Parallelepiped A shoebox is a Parallelepiped.
Any geometric body with six faces that are each parallelograms that are in planes parallel to the opposite face.
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Parallelogram A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides is a Parallelogram; it has many dependable properties.
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Parametric Equation In a general sense, we have a Parametric Equation when we define something in specific terms of something else.
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Parentheses Symbols ( ) serve to isolate or group written entities.
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Parenthesis Symbols ( ) serve to isolate or group written entities.
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Partial Derivative The derivative with respect to a single variable is a Partial Derivative.
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Partial Differential Equation A Differential Equation with a Partial derivative.
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Partial Fraction A Fraction built from the decomposition of other terms.
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Partial Sum A Partial Sum occurs when we sum only a finite number of terms from a larger or infinite series of terms.
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Pascal's Triangle Pascal's Triangle is an important device for understanding binomial expansion and combinatorics.
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Pentagon A five-sided polygon.
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Percent Literally, per hundred.
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Percentage Any reference to percent is a Percentage; the fraction of 100 a value represents.
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Percentile Certain types of data lend themselves to description by what percent of the values exceed (or fall below) a specific data value.
A Percentile states what percent of the data is less than the specific data value.
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Perfect Square Most generally a Perfect Square is an integer that is the product of another integer times itself.
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Perimeter The distance around the outside of a planar object or a plane figure is its perimeter.
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Period Measured in time, or angle, or even sometimes distance, the Period of a repetitive function is the time (or angle or distance) it takes to complete a cycle.
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Periodic Functions that repeat a cycle over and over again are considered Periodic.
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Permutation A specific order to the grouping of objects in a combination is termed a Permutation.
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Perpendicular At right angles.
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Perpendicular Bisector A line segment (or side of a polygon) has a unique line through its midpoint perpendicular to the line segment (or side). Play_video
Phase Shift This applies to sinusoids moved left or right by a change to the argument (the angle).
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Phi The twenty-first letter of the Greek alphabet.
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Pi The constant ratio of circumference to diameter is represented by the 16th letter of the Greek alphabet; it is approximately 3.14159.
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Piecewise Literally taken in sections or pieces.
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Piecewise Continuous Function When a function is defined over an interval of the domain by different relations to the dependent variable we call it a Piecewise Continuous Function.
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Plane An infinite expanse of points in two dimensions.
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Plane Geometry Basic geometry is Plane Geometry.
We hold to the parallel postulate and Euclidean principles.
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Plus A symbol for addition, or the operation itself.
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Point A location of infinitesimal size, that is, no size.
A mathematical idea.
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Polar Complex Number We may express complex numbers in trigonometric form.
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Polar Coordinates In labeling a point in a plane we need two coordinates.
In Polar Coordinates we use a radius and an angle, as (r, theta).
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Polar-Rectangular Conversion An algorithm for changing (r, theta) to (x, y).
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Polygon A closed plane figure with straight sides.
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Polyhedron A geometric solid with faces that are polygons.
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Polynomial A series of terms (or a single term, a monomial), usually with at least one variable; terms are separated by plus signs or minus signs.
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Population Statistically when we sample a Population we generally seek a representative sample.
A Population is the group from which we take a sample.
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Positive Real values are Positive when they are greater than zero.
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Postulate A far-reaching conjecture or sense of reasoning for which an obvious and substantive base appears most reasonable.
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Power Power most often means the value of an exponent.
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Power Rule A simple device in calculus to determine the derivative of a monomial.
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Precision The quality of finer measurement or estimation is termed Precision. Play_video
Prime Factorization The process of finding the prime factors of a composite number is called Prime Factorization.
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Prime Number A positive integer evenly divisible by itself and one but no other integers is considered a Prime Number.
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Principal An amount, typically money, upon which the time value of money (accumulation of an added percentage over a defined time) generates interest is termed Principal.
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Prism A Prism is a geometric solid with two congruent polygons within parallel bases connected by faces that are parallelograms.
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Probability The likelihood of an event or particular outcome is its Probability.
All Probabilities are between 0 and 1 (between zero percent and 100 percent).
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Product The result of the operation of multiplication is called a Product.
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Product Rule An algorithm within the calculus to find the derivative of the Product of two functions.
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Projectile Motion Projectile Motion is a parabolic arc caused by gravity.
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Proof An ingredient in pudding.
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Proper Subset A set that is a subset of a given set and not identical to the given set is a Proper Subset of the given set.
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Proportional In a (constant) ratio.
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Psi The 23rd letter (next-to-last) of the Greek alphabet.
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Pure Imaginary Number Given a complex number of the form a + bi, when a = 0 we say that the number is a Pure (or purely) Imaginary Number. Play_video
Pyramid A geometric solid with a base of a polygon and planar lateral sides that meet at a point called an apex is termed a Pyramid.
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Pythagorean Identities sin²x + cos²x = 1; 1 + tan²x = sec²x; 1 + cot²x = csc²x Play_video
Pythagorean Triple A series of three integers for whom the Pythagorean relation holds, as 3-4-5 or 5-12-13, because 3² + 4² = 5² and 5² + 12² = 13².
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