MATH GLOSSARY
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Title  Description  

Magnitude (Powers of Ten)  When we multiply a real number times ten, we increase its magnitude by one. When we divide a real number by ten, we decrease its magnitude by one. Very much like place value, "orders of magnitude" refer to powers of ten, where greater place values indicate a greater magnitude. Conversely, lesser place values indicate a decrease in magnitude. 

Magnitude, Vectors  The Magnitude of a vector is the length of the vector. We may apply a Pythagorean relation to the perpendicular components of the vector to find the length. 

Major Axis  Certain conic sections have a Major Axis, a line (segment) between vertices. 

Matrix  A rectangular array of numbers is often called a Matrix. 

Matrix Addition  Matrix Addition applies to matrices of like order, the same size. 

Matrix Element  One of the numbers or terms within the rectangular array of terms in a matrix is an Element of the Matrix. 

Matrix Multiplication  To multiply two matrices: the number of columns in the first matrix must match the number of rows in the second matrix. 

Maxima  The plural of maximum. Maxima are "high spots" on the graph of a function. 

Maximize  A process to establish the greatest extent, value, or size possible. 

Maximum  A highest value. A local Maximum is the highest value of a function within some defined neighborhood. 

Mean Value Theorem  Essentially, between any two extremes is an average value. 

Measure  A noun or verb, Measure implies comparison to an established standard. 

Measurement  The result from comparison to an established standard, Measurement may be exact only to an agreedto precision. 

Median (Data)  The Median of a set of data is the value in the middle of an ordered or sorted list, with just as many values higher than the Median as lower than the Median. 

Median, Trapezoid  The average of the lengths of the bases of a trapezoid. The Median is a line segment parallel to and equidistant from the bases. 

Median, Triangle  A triangle has three Medians, each a line segment from a vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side of the triangle. Medians are concurrent at the centroid. 

Midpoint  Every line segment (or side of a polygon) contains a point equidistant from the endpoints (or vertices), the Midpoint. 

Midpoint Formula  A simple recipe for finding the Midpoint of a line segment in Cartesian or rectangular coordinates. Add the xcoordinates of the endpoints of the line segment and divide by two for the xcoordinate of the midpoint. The yvalue follows similarly. 

Minima  The plural of minimum. Minima are low points on the graph of a function. 

Minimize  A process to establish the least extent, value, or size possible. 

Minimum  A low point or least value in the neighborhood of the graph of a function is a Minimum, the singular of minima. 

Minor Axis  A line or line segment specific to certain conic sections. 

Minute (Time)  Onesixtieth of an hour comprises one Minute of time. Equivalently 1 Minute equals 60 seconds. 

Minute, Angle  For angles, one Minute is onesixtieth of a degree. One Minute is equivalent to 1/21600 of a circular rotation. 

Minute, Time  Onesixtieth of an hour comprises one Minute of time. 

Mixed Number  We may write an "improper" fraction as a whole number followed immediately with a "proper" fraction. Such a form is termed a Mixed Fraction. 

Mode  While Mode can take on several meanings in mathematics, it generally is used for the value of data with the greatest frequency of occurrence in a list of values. 

Modulo N  Often written as "mod n," it is the remainder after division, and it makes sense in the realm of integers (only). 

Modulus  Most typically it is the length of a vector. 

Modus Ponens  We have "If A, then B." Modus Ponens is a piece of logic that goes like this: if we know A to be true, then we know that B must be true, too. 

Modus Tollens  Begin with "If A, then B." That's a given. We (somehow) know that B is false. We then may infer (but not conclude) that A is false. Modus Tollens is not particularly robust; it is not entirely dependable. 

Moment  Moment takes on many meanings in statistics and physics. 

Moment of Inertia  Each shape or body has an associated Moment of Inertia related to mass distribution and the choice of the axis around which the body is rotated. 

Monomial  A single term. 

Mu  The twelfth letter of the Greek alphabet, Mu is used for both the mean and median in a normal distribution. 

Multiplication  You know, times. The operation to simplify addition of identical values. You should learn your Times Tables, the basic facts of Multiplication. 

Multiplicative Inverse  Another name for Multiplicative Inverse is reciprocal. Reciprocals multiply to one. 

Multiplicative Inverse, Matrix  The Multiplicative Inverse of a Matrix is the matrix for whom the operation of matrix multiplication on another matrix produces the identity matrix. More commonly it is termed simply the Inverse Matrix. 

Multivariable  Having more than one variable. Also multivariate. 

Multivariate  Having more than one variable. Also multivariable. 
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