MATH GLOSSARY

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Magnitude (Powers of Ten) When we multiply a real number times ten, we increase its magnitude by one.
When we divide a real number by ten, we decrease its magnitude by one.
Very much like place value, "orders of magnitude" refer to powers of ten, where greater place values indicate a greater magnitude.
Conversely, lesser place values indicate a decrease in magnitude.
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Magnitude, Vectors The Magnitude of a vector is the length of the vector.
We may apply a Pythagorean relation to the perpendicular components of the vector to find the length.
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Major Axis Certain conic sections have a Major Axis, a line (segment) between vertices.
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Matrix A rectangular array of numbers is often called a Matrix.
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Matrix Addition Matrix Addition applies to matrices of like order, the same size.
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Matrix Element One of the numbers or terms within the rectangular array of terms in a matrix is an Element of the Matrix.
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Matrix Multiplication To multiply two matrices: the number of columns in the first matrix must match the number of rows in the second matrix.
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Maxima The plural of maximum.
Maxima are "high spots" on the graph of a function.
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Maximize A process to establish the greatest extent, value, or size possible.
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Maximum A highest value.
A local Maximum is the highest value of a function within some defined neighborhood.
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Mean Value Theorem Essentially, between any two extremes is an average value.
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Measure A noun or verb, Measure implies comparison to an established standard.
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Measurement The result from comparison to an established standard, Measurement may be exact only to an agreed-to precision.
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Median (Data) The Median of a set of data is the value in the middle of an ordered or sorted list, with just as many values higher than the Median as lower than the Median.
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Median, Trapezoid The average of the lengths of the bases of a trapezoid.
The Median is a line segment parallel to and equidistant from the bases.
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Median, Triangle A triangle has three Medians, each a line segment from a vertex to the midpoint of the opposite side of the triangle.
Medians are concurrent at the centroid.
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Midpoint Every line segment (or side of a polygon) contains a point equidistant from the endpoints (or vertices), the Midpoint.
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Midpoint Formula A simple recipe for finding the Midpoint of a line segment in Cartesian or rectangular coordinates.
Add the x-coordinates of the endpoints of the line segment and divide by two for the x-coordinate of the midpoint.
The y-value follows similarly.
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Minima The plural of minimum.
Minima are low points on the graph of a function.
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Minimize A process to establish the least extent, value, or size possible.
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Minimum A low point or least value in the neighborhood of the graph of a function is a Minimum, the singular of minima.
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Minor Axis A line or line segment specific to certain conic sections.
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Minute (Time) One-sixtieth of an hour comprises one Minute of time.
Equivalently 1 Minute equals 60 seconds.
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Minute, Angle For angles, one Minute is one-sixtieth of a degree.
One Minute is equivalent to 1/21600 of a circular rotation.
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Minute, Time One-sixtieth of an hour comprises one Minute of time.
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Mixed Number We may write an "improper" fraction as a whole number followed immediately with a "proper" fraction.
Such a form is termed a Mixed Fraction.
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Mode While Mode can take on several meanings in mathematics, it generally is used for the value of data with the greatest frequency of occurrence in a list of values.
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Modulo N Often written as "mod n," it is the remainder after division, and it makes sense in the realm of integers (only).
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Modulus Most typically it is the length of a vector.
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Modus Ponens We have "If A, then B." Modus Ponens is a piece of logic that goes like this: if we know A to be true, then we know that B must be true, too.
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Modus Tollens Begin with "If A, then B." That's a given.
We (somehow) know that B is false.
We then may infer (but not conclude) that A is false.
Modus Tollens is not particularly robust; it is not entirely dependable.
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Moment Moment takes on many meanings in statistics and physics.
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Moment of Inertia Each shape or body has an associated Moment of Inertia related to mass distribution and the choice of the axis around which the body is rotated.
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Monomial A single term.
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Mu The twelfth letter of the Greek alphabet, Mu is used for both the mean and median in a normal distribution.
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Multiplication You know, times.
The operation to simplify addition of identical values.
You should learn your Times Tables, the basic facts of Multiplication.
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Multiplicative Inverse Another name for Multiplicative Inverse is reciprocal.
Reciprocals multiply to one.
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Multiplicative Inverse, Matrix The Multiplicative Inverse of a Matrix is the matrix for whom the operation of matrix multiplication on another matrix produces the identity matrix.
More commonly it is termed simply the Inverse Matrix.
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Multivariable Having more than one variable.
Also multivariate.
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Multivariate Having more than one variable.
Also multivariable.
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