BASIC ALGEBRA GLOSSARY

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Title Description
Sample When we Sample a population we typically seek a representative Sample.
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Sample Space We often use Sample Space to designate all the possibilities of potential outcomes for an event or process.
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Scalar A value with unit of size (magnitude) and no direction is termed a Scalar.
Contrast with a vector that has both magnitude and direction; a Scalar has magnitude but no direction.
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Scalene A triangle is considered Scalene if no two sides have the same length.
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Scatterplot A planar plot of points from two variables with each point representative of a datum from both variables, most often with some relation or correlation.
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Scientific Notation Scientific Notation is an easy way to represent either very large numbers or very small numbers.
Large numbers are expressed with positive powers of ten; small numbers are expressed with negative powers of ten.
Such numbers often represent physical quantities or values that would be inconvenient or cumbersome to write with typical decimal representations.
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Second, Degree While "second degree" applies to a polynomial, a single Second with respect to Degree measure is one-sixtieth of one minute, or one sixtieth of one sixtieth of one degree, or 1/1,296,000 of a revolution.
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Second, Time One sixtieth of a minute, or 1/3600 of an hour, is one Second of Time.
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Second-Order Polynomial A polynomial in which the highest-order term is of order two.
The highest power in second-order univariate (one variable) polynomial is two; the degree of such a polynomial is degree two.
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Segment, Circle A portion of a circle bounded by a chord and the circle itself.
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Segment, Line A Line Segment is a set of collinear points bounded on both ends with, literally, endpoints.
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Semicircle Half a circle; the portion of a circle on one side of a diameter.
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Series Most often a sequence of terms to be summed.
Informally, any sequence of terms may be a Series.
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Set Any collection of objects or values is considered a Set, whose cardinal number is the number of objects in the Set.
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Set Intersection The Intersection of two (or more) Sets is the subset common to both (or all) Sets.
Logically, the Intersection of two Sets A and B is literally the Set of "A and B."
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Set Union The Union of two (or more) Sets is the Set that contains both (or all) Sets.
Logically, the Union of two Sets A and B is the Set of elements contained in either Set A or B, literally "A or B."
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Sigma The 18th letter of the Greek alphabet, upper-case sigma is used for summation notation, lower-case Sigma often denotes a standard deviation in statistics.
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Significant Digits Informally, Digits that are not zero.
Slightly more formally, nonzero Digits as well as zeros between nonzero Digits.
Strictly, the number of Digits required to express a calculated value to within the reasonable tolerance or uncertainty of calculation.
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Simple Closed Curve A planar figure that neither crosses itself or contains a gap is a Simple Closed Curve; note that a curve can be "straight" according to the mathematicians.
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Simple Harmonic Motion Periodic Motion with constant length of cycle time (a fixed period) is termed Simple Harmonic Motion.
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Simplify To express (or rewrite) in more concise terms.
To make simpler.
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Simultaneous Equations Equations with common solutions are Simultaneous Equations.
Also, equivalent equalities (statements with equal signs) may be termed Simultaneous Equations.
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Skew Lines neither intersecting nor parallel (non-coplanar lines) are termed Skew lines.
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Slope A number associated with a line graphed in a plane, Slope is the ratio of rise over run, an indication of the steepness of the line.
We may write a line as y = mx + b and use the value of m for Slope.
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Slope-Intercept Equation of a Line The familiar y = mx + b, where m represents Slope and b is the y-Intercept.
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Solid A three-dimensional geometric figure or body that includes the interior region.
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Solution Too often in math class, "the answer." More directly, a Solution is a value (or set of values) that makes a mathematical statement true.
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Solution Set Strictly, any Solution is a Solution Set, the value(s) that make a mathematical statement true.
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Speed A (typically fixed) ratio of length or distance to a unit of time; Speed is a scalar value, as in miles per hour (mph) or feet per second (fps).
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Sphere A three-dimensional figure comprised of points equidistant from a center point; a Sphere has a fixed radius.
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Square 1 (noun) - the regular quadrilateral that is both equilateral and equiangular.
2 (noun) - the result of multiplying a number times itself.

3 (verb) - the operation of multiplying a number times itself; equivalently raising it to second power, or to the exponent 2.
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Square Matrix A Square Matrix has the same number of rows as columns.
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Square Root Given a real value, the number that times itself (squared) produces the given value. Play_video
SSS Congruence Two triangles whose corresponding sides are congruent are themselves congruent.
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Standard Equation of a Line When expressing the Equation of a Line with integral coefficients we may have the Standard Equation of a Line.
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Standard Position An angle in Standard Position has been rotated counterclockwise (for positive rotation) from an initial ray on the positive x-axis.
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Stem-and-Leaf Plot A graphical device to group statistical data, typically by leading digits.
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Step Function A discontinuous Function where the range jumps in increments (usually fixed) may be a Step Function.
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Straight Angle An angle of 180 degrees or pi radians.
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Strict Inequality A Strict Inequality is an inequality that does not include an "or equal to...".
Strict inequality only apply to unequal values, as one is either greater than (>) or less than (<) the other.
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Subset Every set is a Subset of itself.
A Subset has elements all contained in a "parent" set.
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Subtraction The operation we begin thinking of as "take away" or "minus" is a way to find the difference between values.
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Sum The result of addition.
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Symmetry Having a like but reversed profile or image (a mirror image) about a line is having the quality of Symmetry about the axis (of Symmetry).
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System of Equations Most generally simultaneous Equations, or a set of Equations with identical variables.
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