BASIC ALGEBRA GLOSSARY
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Title  Description  

Octagon  An eightsided polygon. 

Octant  As we have four quadrants in the rectangular plane, we have eight Octants in rectangular space. In three dimensions the three axes divide space into eight sections, each termed an Octant. 

Odd  In common language: strange or unusual. For integers, numbers ending with any of these digits: 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9. 

Odds  The likelihood or probability of an event or specific outcome is termed the Odds of the event occurring. Odds, or probabilities, are always represented with values between 0 and 1, or between zero and 100 percent (inclusively). 

Omega  The last, or 24th, letter of the Greek alphabet is Omega. Uppercase Omega is used for ohms, a unit of electrical resistance. Lowercase Omega is used for angular velocity, a speed of rotation. 

Omicron  The 15th letter of the Greek alphabet. We don't use it in math because it looks just like an "o" or a zero. 

OneDimensional  Linear, or along one line of direction. Informally, constrained to stay along a narrow line. 

Open Interval  A section of a line whose set does not include the endpoints is considered an Open Interval. 

Operation  The processes of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are each termed an Operation. So, too, is raising a value to a exponent. 

Opposite  Many meanings are found for Opposite, including having direction 180 degrees from an original direction, or having the negative sign of a previous sign. Opposite real values have identical absolute values. 

Order (Polynomial)  The Order of a Polynomial relates to the highest power of variables in a term, typically the Order of the leading term of the Polynomial.  
Order of Operations  We have a hierarchy of Order to Operations in the language of mathematics. We do multiplication before we do addition, and we also work lefttoright. We work first inside of expressions within parentheses, then outward. 

Order, Polynomial  The Order of a Polynomial relates to the highest power of variables in a term, typically the Order of the leading term of the Polynomial. 

Ordered Pair  Two coordinates are required to label a point in a plane, typically (x, y). 

Ordered Triple  Three coordinates are required to label a point in space, typically (x, y, z). 

Ordinal Number  Ordinal Numbers are ordinary numbers, or the sequential references of order as first, second, third, and so on. 

Ordinate  In Cartesian or rectangular coordinates, the yaxis, or the coordinate from the yaxis; the second coordinate in an ordered pair. 

Origin  In one dimension: (0). In two dimensions: (0,0). In three dimensions: (0, 0, 0). 

Orthogonal  Most generally Orthogonal means perpendicular to a plane. 

Outcome  A specific event is often termed an Outcome. 

Outlier  When plotting data points, as in a scatterplot, if a single data point is far removed from the neighborhood of the other data points, such a farremoved data point is called an Outlier. 
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