ARITHMETIC GLOSSARY

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Title Description
Sample When we Sample a population we typically seek a representative Sample.
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Sample Space We often use Sample Space to designate all the possibilities of potential outcomes for an event, process or operation.
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Scientific Notation Scientific Notation is an easy way to represent either very large numbers or very small numbers.
Large numbers are expressed with positive powers of ten; small numbers are expressed with negative powers of ten.
Such numbers often represent physical quantities or values that would be inconvenient or cumbersome to write with typical decimal representations.
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Second (Time) One sixtieth of a minute, or 1/3600 of an hour, is one Second of Time.
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Second, Degree While "second degree" applies to a polynomial, a single Second with respect to Degree measure is one-sixtieth of one minute, or one sixtieth of one sixtieth of one degree, or 1/1,296,000 of a revolution.
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Second, Time One sixtieth of a minute, or 1/3600 of an hour, is one Second of Time.
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Segment, Circle A portion of a circle bounded by a chord and the circle itself.
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Segment, Line A Line Segment is a set of collinear points bounded on both ends with, literally, endpoints.
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Semicircle Half a circle; the portion of a circle on one side of a diameter.
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Set Any collection of objects or values is considered a Set, whose cardinal number is the number of objects in the Set. Play_video
Significant Digits Informally, Digits that are not zero.
Slightly more formally, nonzero Digits as well as zeros between nonzero Digits.
Strictly, the number of Digits required to express a calculated value to within the reasonable tolerance or uncertainty of calculation.
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Simplify To express (or rewrite) in more concise terms.
To make simpler.
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Slope A number associated with a line graphed in a plane, Slope is the ratio of rise over run, an indication of the steepness of the line.
We may write a line as y = mx + b and use the value of m for Slope.
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Solution Too often in math class, "the answer." More directly, a Solution is a value (or set of values) that makes a mathematical statement true.
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Solution Set Strictly, any Solution is a Solution Set, the value(s) that make a mathematical statement true.
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Speed A (typically fixed) ratio of length or distance to a unit of time; Speed is a scalar value, as in miles per hour (mph) or feet per second (fps).
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Square 1 (noun) - the regular quadrilateral that is both equilateral and equiangular.
2 (noun) - the result of multiplying a number times itself.

3 (verb) - the operation of multiplying a number times itself; equivalently raising it to second power, or to the exponent 2.
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Square Root Given a real value, the number that times itself (squared) produces the given value. Play_video
Stem-and-Leaf Plot A graphical device to group statistical data, typically by leading digits.
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Strict Inequality A Strict Inequality is an inequality that does not include an "or equal to...".
Strict inequality only apply to unequal values, as one is either greater than (>) or less than (<) the other.
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Subset Every set is a Subset of itself.
A Subset has elements all contained in a "parent" set.
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Subtraction The operation we begin thinking of as "take away" or "minus" is a way to find the difference between values.
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Sum The result of addition.
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