ARITHMETIC GLOSSARY
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Title  Description  

Sample  When we Sample a population we typically seek a representative Sample. 

Sample Space  We often use Sample Space to designate all the possibilities of potential outcomes for an event, process or operation. 

Scientific Notation  Scientific Notation is an easy way to represent either very large numbers or very small numbers. Large numbers are expressed with positive powers of ten; small numbers are expressed with negative powers of ten. Such numbers often represent physical quantities or values that would be inconvenient or cumbersome to write with typical decimal representations. 

Second (Time)  One sixtieth of a minute, or 1/3600 of an hour, is one Second of Time. 

Second, Degree  While "second degree" applies to a polynomial, a single Second with respect to Degree measure is onesixtieth of one minute, or one sixtieth of one sixtieth of one degree, or 1/1,296,000 of a revolution. 

Second, Time  One sixtieth of a minute, or 1/3600 of an hour, is one Second of Time. 

Segment, Circle  A portion of a circle bounded by a chord and the circle itself. 

Segment, Line  A Line Segment is a set of collinear points bounded on both ends with, literally, endpoints. 

Semicircle  Half a circle; the portion of a circle on one side of a diameter. 

Set  Any collection of objects or values is considered a Set, whose cardinal number is the number of objects in the Set.  
Significant Digits  Informally, Digits that are not zero. Slightly more formally, nonzero Digits as well as zeros between nonzero Digits. Strictly, the number of Digits required to express a calculated value to within the reasonable tolerance or uncertainty of calculation. 

Simplify  To express (or rewrite) in more concise terms. To make simpler. 

Slope  A number associated with a line graphed in a plane, Slope is the ratio of rise over run, an indication of the steepness of the line. We may write a line as y = mx + b and use the value of m for Slope. 

Solution  Too often in math class, "the answer." More directly, a Solution is a value (or set of values) that makes a mathematical statement true. 

Solution Set  Strictly, any Solution is a Solution Set, the value(s) that make a mathematical statement true. 

Speed  A (typically fixed) ratio of length or distance to a unit of time; Speed is a scalar value, as in miles per hour (mph) or feet per second (fps). 

Square  1 (noun)  the regular quadrilateral that is both equilateral and equiangular. 2 (noun)  the result of multiplying a number times itself. 3 (verb)  the operation of multiplying a number times itself; equivalently raising it to second power, or to the exponent 2. 

Square Root  Given a real value, the number that times itself (squared) produces the given value.  
StemandLeaf Plot  A graphical device to group statistical data, typically by leading digits. 

Strict Inequality  A Strict Inequality is an inequality that does not include an "or equal to...". Strict inequality only apply to unequal values, as one is either greater than (>) or less than (<) the other. 

Subset  Every set is a Subset of itself. A Subset has elements all contained in a "parent" set. 

Subtraction  The operation we begin thinking of as "take away" or "minus" is a way to find the difference between values. 

Sum  The result of addition. 
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