# ARITHMETIC GLOSSARY

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Title Description
Parentheses Symbols ( ) serve to isolate or group written entities.
Parenthesis Symbols ( ) serve to isolate or group written entities.
Pentagon A five-sided polygon.
Percent Literally, per hundred.
Percents are equivalent to Fractions where the numerator reads as the percent and the denominator is 100.
Percentage Any reference to percent is a Percentage; the fraction of 100 a value represents.
Percentile Certain types of data lend themselves to description by what percent of the values exceed (or fall below) a specific data value.
A Percentile states what percent of the data is less than the specific data value.
Perfect Square A Perfect Square is simply a number, value, or mathematical expression that results from any of these entities multiplied by itself.
Most generally a Perfect Square is an integer that is the product of another integer times itself.
Perimeter The distance around the outside of a planar object or a plane figure is its perimeter.
Perpendicular At right angles.
Phi The twenty-first letter of the Greek alphabet.
Pi The constant ratio of circumference to diameter is represented by the 16th letter of the Greek alphabet; it is approximately 3.14159.
Plane An infinite expanse of points in two dimensions.
Plus A symbol for addition, or the operation itself.
Point A location of infinitesimal size, that is, no size.
A mathematical idea.
Positive Real values are Positive when they are greater than zero.
Power Power most often means the value of an exponent.
In advanced mathematics, a type of series where an infinite number of terms are raised to successive integer powers.
Precision The quality of finer measurement or estimation is termed Precision.
Prime Factorization The process of finding the prime factors of a composite number is called Prime Factorization.
Prime Number A positive integer with exactly two unique integer factors, 1 and itself, is considered a Prime Number.
Principal An amount, typically money, upon which the time value of money (accumulation of an added percentage over a defined time) generates interest is termed Principal.
Probability The likelihood of an event or particular outcome is its Probability.
All Probabilities are between 0 and 1 (between zero percent and 100 percent).
Product The result of the operation of multiplication is called a Product.
We multiply two or more factors to obtain a product, and those factors may be multiplied in any order.
Proper Subset A set that is a subset of a given set and not identical to the given set is a Proper Subset of the given set.
Proportional When we compare two values, if one value increases or decreases at a rate that when compared to the other is fixed or constant, the two values are said to be proportional.
Two variables or two sets of values are proportional if their ratio is constant.
Psi The 23rd letter (next-to-last) of the Greek alphabet.
Pythagorean Triple A series of three integers for whom the Pythagorean relation holds, as 3-4-5 or 5-12-13, because 3² + 4² = 5² and 5² + 12² = 13².

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