ARITHMETIC GLOSSARY
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Title  Description  

Parentheses  Symbols ( ) serve to isolate or group written entities. 

Parenthesis  Symbols ( ) serve to isolate or group written entities. 

Pentagon  A fivesided polygon. 

Percent  Literally, per hundred. 

Percentage  Any reference to percent is a Percentage; the fraction of 100 a value represents. 

Percentile  Certain types of data lend themselves to description by what percent of the values exceed (or fall below) a specific data value. A Percentile states what percent of the data is less than the specific data value. 

Perfect Square  Most generally a Perfect Square is an integer that is the product of another integer times itself. 

Perimeter  The distance around the outside of a planar object or a plane figure is its perimeter. 

Perpendicular  At right angles. 

Phi  The twentyfirst letter of the Greek alphabet. 

Pi  The constant ratio of circumference to diameter is represented by the 16th letter of the Greek alphabet; it is approximately 3.14159. 

Plane  An infinite expanse of points in two dimensions. 

Plus  A symbol for addition, or the operation itself. 

Point  A location of infinitesimal size, that is, no size. A mathematical idea. 

Positive  Real values are Positive when they are greater than zero. 

Power  Power most often means the value of an exponent. 

Precision  The quality of finer measurement or estimation is termed Precision.  
Prime Factorization  The process of finding the prime factors of a composite number is called Prime Factorization. 

Prime Number  A positive integer evenly divisible by itself and one but no other integers is considered a Prime Number. 

Principal  An amount, typically money, upon which the time value of money (accumulation of an added percentage over a defined time) generates interest is termed Principal. 

Probability  The likelihood of an event or particular outcome is its Probability. All Probabilities are between 0 and 1 (between zero percent and 100 percent). 

Product  The result of the operation of multiplication is called a Product. 

Proper Subset  A set that is a subset of a given set and not identical to the given set is a Proper Subset of the given set. 

Proportional  In a (constant) ratio. 

Psi  The 23rd letter (nexttolast) of the Greek alphabet. 

Pythagorean Triple  A series of three integers for whom the Pythagorean relation holds, as 345 or 51213, because 3² + 4² = 5² and 5² + 12² = 13². 
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