ARITHMETIC GLOSSARY
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Title  Description  

Octagon  An eightsided polygon. 

Odd  In common language: strange or unusual. For integers, numbers ending with any of these digits: 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9. 

Odds  The probability or likelihood of a specified event occurring. When expressed as a probability, odds are between 0 and 1 or between 0 and 100 percent. When expressed as a ratio, odds can be any rational number. 

OneDimensional  Linear, or along one line of direction. Informally, constrained to stay along a narrow line. 

Operation  The processes of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are each termed an Operation. So, too, is raising a value to a exponent. 

Opposite  Many meanings are found for Opposite, including having direction 180 degrees from an original direction, or having the negative sign of a previous sign. Opposite real values have identical absolute values. 

Order of Operations  We have a hierarchy of Order to Operations in the language of mathematics. We do multiplication before we do addition, and we also work lefttoright. We work first inside of expressions within parentheses, then outward. 

Ordered Pair  Two coordinates are required to label a point in a plane, typically (x, y). 

Ordered Triple  Three coordinates are required to label a point in space, typically (x, y, z). 

Ordinal Number  Ordinal Numbers are ordinary numbers, or the sequential references of order as first, second, third, and so on. 

Ordinate  In Cartesian or rectangular coordinates, the yaxis, or the coordinate from the yaxis; the second coordinate in an ordered pair. 

Origin  In one dimension: (0). In two dimensions: (0,0). In three dimensions: (0, 0, 0). 

Outcome  A result, consequence, or conclusion from an event, process or operation.  
Outlier  When plotting data points, as in a scatterplot, if a single data point is far removed from the neighborhood of the other data points, such a farremoved data point is called an Outlier. 

Oval  In common language, any elliptical shape or notquite round "circular" shape is called an Oval. Mathematically, an ellipse is not an Oval. 
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