# ARITHMETIC GLOSSARY

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Title Description
Octagon An eight-sided polygon.
Odd In common language: strange or unusual.
For integers, numbers ending with any of these digits: 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9.
Odds The probability or likelihood of a specified event occurring.
When expressed as a probability, odds are between 0 and 1 or between 0 and 100 percent.
When expressed as a ratio, odds can be any rational number.
One-Dimensional Linear, or along one line of direction.
Informally, constrained to stay along a narrow line.
Operation The processes of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are each termed an Operation.
So, too, is raising a value to a exponent.
Opposite Many meanings are found for Opposite, including having direction 180 degrees from an original direction, or having the negative sign of a previous sign.
Opposite real values have identical absolute values.
Order of Operations We have a hierarchy of Order to Operations in the language of mathematics.
We do multiplication before we do addition, and we also work left-to-right.
We work first inside of expressions within parentheses, then outward.
Ordered Pair Two coordinates are required to label a point in a plane, typically (x, y).
Ordered Triple Three coordinates are required to label a point in space, typically (x, y, z).
Ordinal Number Ordinal Numbers are ordinary numbers, or the sequential references of order as first, second, third, and so on.
Ordinate In Cartesian or rectangular coordinates, the y-axis, or the coordinate from the y-axis; the second coordinate in an ordered pair.
Origin In one dimension: (0).
In two dimensions: (0,0).
In three dimensions: (0, 0, 0).
Outcome A result, consequence, or conclusion from an event, process or operation.
Outlier When plotting data points, as in a scatterplot, if a single data point is far removed from the neighborhood of the other data points, such a far-removed data point is called an Outlier.
Oval In common language, any elliptical shape or not-quite round "circular" shape is called an Oval.
Mathematically, an ellipse is not an Oval.

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