ARITHMETIC GLOSSARY
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Title  Description  

Absolute Value  The distance on the real number line between a value and zero. It applies best to things for which negative values have no meaning, such as mass or length. 

Addend  Most simply a term. More specifically a term to be added to other terms to find a sum. Addends can have a negative value. 

Addition  The process of finding a sum or determining a total by joining values together. Values are summed in the process to result in a total. Matrix addition adds elements of matrices of the same order (or dimension). Vector addition results in the diagonal of a parallelogram (if in two dimensions). 

Additive Inverse for Arithmetic  The opposite of a given number. Change the sign of a number to have its additive inverse. The sum of a number and its additive inverse is always zero. 

Additive Property of Equality  This property allows us to add equals to equals to stay equal. Given two equal values, we may add the same quantity to both values and retain an equality. 

Argument of a Function  The term or expression upon which a function operates. In y=f(x), the argument of the function is x. 

Arithmetic  A branch of mathematics built upon the basic operations of addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication. Powers, roots, and logarithms are often considered arithmetic in nature. 

Arithmetic Mean  What we generally consider to be the average. The sum of a set of values divided by the cardinal number of the set. 

Arithmetic Progression  Also Arithmetic Sequence. A series of terms where successive terms are obtained by addition of a constant. 

Arithmetic Sequence  Also Arithmetic Sequence. A series of terms where successive terms are obtained by addition of a constant. 

Associative Law of Addition  Provides that addition of groups of terms or values is indifferent to the order of grouping. We may add terms in any order, or group them in any order. 

Associative Law of Multiplication  Provides that multiplication of groups of terms or factors is indifferent to the order of grouping. We may multiply factors in any order, or group them in any order. 

Average  Most commonly, average means the arithmetic mean; we sum the values and divide that sum by the number of numbers (the Cardinal Number of the set). The average between two real values is the midpoint between those values. 
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