ARITHMETIC GLOSSARY
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Title  Description  

Absolute Value  The distance on the real number line between a value and zero. It applies best to things for which negative values have no meaning, such as mass or length. 

Addend  Most simply a term. More specifically a term to be added to other terms to find a sum. Addends can have a negative value. 

Addition  The process of finding a sum or determining a total by joining values together. Values are summed in the process to result in a total. Matrix addition adds elements of matrices of the same order (or dimension). Vector addition results in the diagonal of a parallelogram (if in two dimensions). 

Additive Inverse for Arithmetic  The opposite of a given number. Change the sign of a number to have its additive inverse. The sum of a number and its additive inverse is always zero. 

Additive Property of Equality  This property allows us to add equals to equals to stay equal. Given two equal values, we may add the same quantity to both values and retain an equality. 

Argument of a Function  The term or expression upon which a function operates. In y=f(x), the argument of the function is x. 

Arithmetic  A branch of mathematics built upon the basic operations of addition, subtraction, division, and multiplication. Powers, roots, and logarithms are often considered arithmetic in nature. 

Arithmetic Mean  What we generally consider to be the average. The sum of a set of values divided by the cardinal number of the set. 

Arithmetic Progression  Also Arithmetic Sequence. A series of terms where successive terms are obtained by addition of a constant. 

Arithmetic Sequence  Also Arithmetic Sequence. A series of terms where successive terms are obtained by addition of a constant. 

Associative Law of Addition  Provides that addition of groups of terms or values is indifferent to the order of grouping. We may add terms in any order, or group them in any order. 

Associative Law of Multiplication  Provides that multiplication of groups of terms or factors is indifferent to the order of grouping. We may multiply factors in any order, or group them in any order. 

Average  Most commonly, average means the arithmetic mean; we sum the values and divide that sum by the number of numbers (the Cardinal Number of the set). The average between two real values is the midpoint between those values. 

Base (Exponential)  Any value that is raised to a power is termed a base value. That power is typically expressed as an exponent, and that exponent could be an integer, a decimal value, or a fraction. The base is the number or expression being raised to the power of the exponent. 

Braces  Braces act just like parentheses. Always (almost) used in pairs, braces look like this: { }. 

Brackets  Brackets act just like parentheses, coming in pairs to group data or terms.  
Cardinal Number  The number of objects or elements within a set is the Cardinal Number of the set.  
Clockwise  Rotation in the same direction as the hands of a traditional clock.  
Coinage  Coinage is the system of metal coins used in a national monetary system. Coinage is also the actual coins used, as pennies, nickels, dimes, and quarters in the United States. 

Commutative Law of Addition  When adding terms the order in which we add them matters not at all.  
Commutative Law of Multiplication  The order in which we multiply any number of factors (to obtain the product of those factors) matters not at all.  
Complement of an Event  The complement of an event pertains to probability. If the probability of an event is x, then the probability of the complement of that event is 100 percent minus x. 

Composite Number  Composite Numbers relate to positive integers that are not prime. If a positive integer has factors other than itself and one, it is a Composite Number. 

Computation  Computation is the act of taking values and logical mathematical steps to make a calculation.  
Countable  In common language, countable just means reasonably enumerated or countable, as in there are not too many objects to physically count. In human terms, the grains of sand in the Sahara Desert are not countable. But mathematically they actually are. So Countable means something a little different to the mathematicians. 

Counterclockwise  For angles in standard position, we use a Counterclockwise rotation for positive measurement of the angle's rotation. This is the direction opposite the traditional movement of analog clock hands. 

Counting Numbers  The set of Counting Numbers is (usually) identical to the set of Natural Numbers, the positive integers that we begin to count with when we're little kids. Watch out, however: some people include zero in this set. Most of the time however, the inclusion of zero into this set is called the set of Whole Numbers. 

Cube  A sixsided orthogonal box with square faces; a right square parallelepiped. The result of raising a real value to its third power. The process of multiplying a number times itself and times itself again. 

Cube Root  Given a real value, the Cube Root is the number or value that, when raised to the third power, equals the given real value. We multiply the cube root of a value times itself and times itself again to obtain the given value. 

Currency  Currency is the system of money in a national economic system. Currency is also the actual paper money or bills used in that system. United States uses currency with denominations of one, two, five, ten, twenty, fifty and one hundred dollars. 

Decimal  Digits to the left of the decimal point represent Integer Values. Digits to the right of the decimal point represent Decimal Fractions. All place values whether to the left or the right of the decimal point are successive powers of 10. The term decimal comes from the latin decimus which means tenth. In common language, base 10 numbers with digits to the right of the decimal point are considered decimal values. 

Decimal Fraction  Most simply, decimal fractions are the digits to the right of the decimal point.  
Decreasing  Decreasing means to lessen in extent or scope, to be reduced. A function is considered to be Decreasing if the values in the range decrease as the values from the domain increase. 

Denominator  The Denominator of a fraction is the number on the bottom; it is the divisor of the numerator.  
Dependent Variable  If y = f(x), then y is a function of x and y is the Dependent Variable. Think of it this way: whatever we get for output "y" depends on the input "x" we grab from the domain of the function. 

Difference  The result of subtraction is often considered a Difference.  
Digit  Each of the numerals 0 through 9 is a Digit. The term also refers to place value, as the "tens digit" or the "hundredths digit." 

Direct Variation  Also direct proportion, when variables are in Direct Variation to one another they have the relation that as one variable grows the other either increases or decreases by a constant multiplication factor. When y = kx, we say the variables are in Direct Variation. 

Distance  A length from one point to another is considered a Distance. Any measurement in one dimension confers a length, which is Distance. 

Distributive Property  Given a sum to be multiplied by an outside factor, we may distribute the multiplicative factor over the addends of the sum. The result is that each addend of the sum is multiplied by the outside factor; we then sum the individual products. Example: 3 x (4z + 5) = 12Z + 15. More simply: 5 x (7 + 2) = 5 x 7 + 5 x 2, also written 35 + 10, which is 45. Of course, the original 5 x (9) is 45. So, relax. It's so, so easy. 

Dividend  When we divide, we typically "begin" with a dividend. We divide the dividend by the divisor and we get the resulting quotient. In a fraction, which is always topdividedbybottom (numerator divided by denominator), the top of the fraction is the dividend, the bottom is the divisor, and the value of the resulting fraction is the quotient. 

Division  The process of finding a quotient or a ratio. One of the four basic operations of arithmetic, division begins with a dividend that is to be divided by, or segmented into parts, by a divisor. The result of dividing the dividend by the divisor is called the quotient. 

Divisor  The number we "take into" the dividend when we divide is termed the Divisor. In fractions, which are always topdividedbybottom (numerator divided by denominator) we divide the top (the dividend) by the bottom (the divisor) and the value of the resulting fraction is the quotient. 

Double  Twice the value of a real number is Double the value. To Double is to multiply by two, so to Double a half results in a whole. 

Equal  Equal (=) real values occupy the same position on the real number line.  
Equality  A statement where two or more values are deemed to have an equal or identical value is a statement of Equality.  
Equivalence  When we establish Equivalence we set forth two or more equivalent or equal entities. Two real numbers are equivalent if they have the same value. 

Even (Integer)  Even integers end with one of the following five digits: 0, 2, 4, 6, or 8. These digits are considered Even and the integers that end with them are also considered Even. When Even integers are divided by two the quotient is an integer. 

Exact  Precise to the fullest extent possible. Complete and entirely accurate. Right on. 

Exponent  Usually written as a superscript, an Exponent is a number or entity to which some other value is raised, as a power.  
Factor (noun)  The noun Factor is a value that is multiplied with another Factor (or factors) to result in a product. That product of two or more factors is the result of the operation of multiplication. 

Factor (verb)  The verb Factor is the act of dividing some entity into components or pieces that, when multiplied together, produce the given entity. We "break apart" some real value or quantity into its multiplicative factors when we Factor. 

Factor Tree  A Factor Tree is a written mechanism to see the factors or prime factors of some value (usually an integer, but not necessarily).  
Fixed  Fixed terms or values are constant, never changing value.  
Fraction  Fractions are many, many things. But always, without fail, fractions are the result of dividing the top value (numerator) by the bottom value (denominator). 

Fractional Exponents  Real values can be raised to powers that are integers, decimals, or fractions. Fractional Exponents can be thought of as having a denominator that is the root of the value being raised to the power, with a numerator akin to an integer power. 

Function  Most often a function means a relation between variables where for any input (an independent variable or element from the domain) we have a unique output (element in the range, or dependent variable result).  
Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic  A theorem that all integers can be written as the product of prime numbers is often called the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic.  
Googol  Ten raised to the power of one hundred equals one Googol. 

Googolplex  Ten raised to the power of a googol is a Googolplex; it is a huge number. 

Greatest Common Factor  The GCF of two integers (usually) is the largest integer that divides evenly into both integers. We sometimes use GCF for nonintegral values. 

Height  Altitude. How tall something is, measured in some perpendicular fashion to the "bottom" is its height. 

Horizontal  Horizontal comes from orientation like the horizon; parallel to the "flat" surface of the earth; perpendicular to vertical. 

Hypotenuse  The longest side of a right triangle is the Hypotenuse; it is always opposite the 90degree angle (or right vertex). 

Identity Property of Addition  The Identity Property of Addition says that adding zero to (or subtracting zero from) any real value will not change the value. 

Identity Property of Multiplication  The Identity Property of Multiplication says that multiplication of a real value by one (or division by one) will not change the value.  
Impossibility  Despite what some "possibility thinkers" espouse, some things are mathematically impossible. For example, an exact real number cannot be simultaneously irrational and rational. 

Increasing  Increasing  Increasing means to enlarge in extent or scope, to be expanded. If the values in the range of a function increase as the values of the domain increase, the function is said to be Increasing. 

Independent Variable  Any one of the set of values from the domain; it’s the input into the function.  
Inequality  Real numbers can be compared using one of the following four forms: less than (<), lessthanorequalto (≤), greater than (>), or greaterthanorequalto (≥). Statements that use these comparisons are inequalities. If two real numbers are not equal, one has to be greater than the other. 

Infinite  In common language, not countable in any practical manner. In math, having no bounds or boundary. 

Infinitesimal  Infinitely small is Infinitesimal, so tiny that it occupies no space. While in human terms anything really small (a molecule) is Infinitesimal, in math the term means approaching zero in size. 

Infinity  That without bound; limitless. 

Integer  An Integer is a whole number or its negative. When expressed as a decimal, an Integer has nothing to the right of the decimal point (in American style). 

Interest  Given the timevalueofmoney, Interest is generated on a sum of capital as time passes. 

Interior  Interior means within or "inbetween."  
Intersection  Where geometric entities cross, or where sets have common elements, is termed an Intersection. 

Interval  The space or region between two defined values is an Interval. 

Inverse Variation  Variables or factors that multiply to a constant value. The relation between two variables, when their product is constant, are said to be in a relation of Inverse Variation. 

Inversely Proportional  The relationship between two variables when the product of two variables is a constant. Two variables in a relation of Inverse Variation are said to be Inversely Proportional. 

Irrational Number  A real number that cannot be expressed exactly as the ratio of two integers. Irrational Numbers, when expressed as decimals, never repeat or terminate. 

Least Common Denominator  When two or more fractions are being summed we want the LCD to facilitate the operation of addition.  
Least Common Multiple  The LCM is most typically applied to integers. It is the smallest value evenly divisible by each number for which we seek the LCM. 

Line  An infinite collection (or set) of points in a straight path. The shortest distance between any two points is a straight line segment. A line is an extension of that line segment infinitely far in two opposite directions. 

Line Segment  A section of a line, with endpoints on both ends, is a Line Segment. 

Linear  Linear means "of a line" or "lined up" in a collinear fashion, as in a straight line. 

Logic  Logic takes many forms and is instrumental in understanding the language of mathematics. 

Long Division  An extensive method to divide a dividend by a divisor to obtain a quotient and a possible remainder. The process works for numbers as well as polynomials. 

Magnitude (Powers of Ten)  When we multiply a real number times ten, we increase its magnitude by one. When we divide a real number by ten, we decrease its magnitude by one. Very much like place value, "orders of magnitude" refer to powers of ten, where greater place values indicate a greater magnitude. Conversely, lesser place values indicate a decrease in magnitude. 

Measure  A noun or verb, Measure implies comparison to an established standard. 

Measurement  The result from comparison to an established standard, Measurement may be exact only to an agreedto precision. 

Median (Data)  The Median of a set of data is the value in the middle of an ordered or sorted list, with just as many values higher than the Median as lower than the Median. 

Minimum  A low point or least value in the neighborhood of the graph of a function is a Minimum, the singular of minima. 

Minute (Time)  Onesixtieth of an hour comprises one Minute of time. Equivalently 1 Minute equals 60 seconds. 

Mixed Number  We may write an "improper" fraction as a whole number followed immediately with a "proper" fraction. Such a form is termed a Mixed Fraction. 

Mode  While Mode can take on several meanings in mathematics, it generally is used for the value of data with the greatest frequency of occurrence in a list of values. 

Multiplication  You know, times. The operation to simplify addition of identical values. You should learn your Times Tables, the basic facts of Multiplication. 

Multiplicative Inverse  Another name for Multiplicative Inverse is reciprocal. Reciprocals multiply to one. 

Natural  The set of Natural Numbers is also the set of counting numbers, the same numbers we learn to count when we're little kids: 1, 2, 3, 4.... Precisely in the language of math these are the positive integers. 

Natural Numbers  The set of Natural Numbers is also the set of counting numbers, the same numbers we learn to count when we're little kids: 1, 2, 3, 4.... More precisely in the language of math these are the positive integers. 

Negative  Real values less than zero are Negative. We also consider the Negative of a real value to have the opposite sign, as the opposite (or Negative) of a Negative value is Positive. 

Negative Number  A real value less than zero is a Negative Number. 

Negative Reciprocal  The product of two Negative Reciprocals is 1. When lines in Cartesian or rectangular coordinates meet at right angles they have Negative Reciprocal slopes, unless they are precisely horizontal and vertical. 

Nonnegative  We have occasions to refer to all positive values as well as to zero. These are all the real values that are Nonnegative. Literally, not negative. 

Nonzero  Literally, not zero. Typically used to mean either positive or negative values. 

Nth Degree  Simply raised to the degree of integer (usually) n, or N. In common, everyday language, to pursue something excessively, as parents giving the suitor of their teenage daughter an interrogation "to the nth degree." 

Nth Root  Given some integer N and a real value, the Nth Root of the real value is the number that when raised to the N power returns the real value.  
Null Set  The Null Set is the empty set. Mathematically there is but one empty set, the unique Null Set, the set with nothing in it. 

Number Line  The real Number Line is a depiction of the set of all real numbers from negative infinity to positive infinity. All real numbers lie on the Real Number Line. 

Numerator  The top number in a fraction, above the fraction bar, is the Numerator. It is the dividend to be divided by the divisor, which is the denominator. 

Octagon  An eightsided polygon. 

Odd  In common language: strange or unusual. For integers, numbers ending with any of these digits: 1, 3, 5, 7, or 9. 

Odds  The probability or likelihood of a specified event occurring. When expressed as a probability, odds are between 0 and 1 or between 0 and 100 percent. When expressed as a ratio, odds can be any rational number. 

OneDimensional  Linear, or along one line of direction. Informally, constrained to stay along a narrow line. 

Operation  The processes of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are each termed an Operation. So, too, is raising a value to a exponent. 

Opposite  Many meanings are found for Opposite, including having direction 180 degrees from an original direction or additive inverses (two values whose sum is 0). Opposite real values have identical absolute values. 

Order of Operations  We have a hierarchy of Order to Operations in the language of mathematics. We do multiplication before we do addition, and we also work lefttoright. We work first inside of expressions within parentheses, then outward. 

Ordered Pair  Two coordinates are required to label a point in a plane, typically (x, y). 

Ordered Triple  Three coordinates are required to label a point in space, typically (x, y, z). 

Ordinal Number  Ordinal Numbers are ordinary numbers, or the sequential references of order as first, second, third, and so on. 

Ordinate  In Cartesian or rectangular coordinates, the yaxis, or the coordinate from the yaxis; the second coordinate in an ordered pair. 

Origin  In one dimension: (0). In two dimensions: (0,0). In three dimensions: (0, 0, 0). 

Outcome  A result, consequence, or conclusion from an event, process or operation.  
Outlier  When plotting data points, as in a scatterplot, if a single data point is far removed from the neighborhood of the other data points, such a farremoved data point is called an Outlier. 

Oval  In common language, any elliptical shape or notquite round "circular" shape is called an Oval. Mathematically, an ellipse is not an Oval. 

Parentheses  Symbols ( ) serve to isolate or group written entities. 

Parenthesis  Symbols ( ) serve to isolate or group written entities. 

Pentagon  A fivesided polygon.  
Percent  Literally, per hundred. Percents are equivalent to Fractions where the numerator reads as the percent and the denominator is 100. 

Percentage  Any reference to percent is a Percentage; the fraction of 100 a value represents. 

Percentile  Certain types of data lend themselves to description by what percent of the values exceed (or fall below) a specific data value. A Percentile states what percent of the data is less than the specific data value. 

Perfect Square  A Perfect Square is simply a number, value, or mathematical expression that results from any of these entities multiplied by itself. Most generally a Perfect Square is an integer that is the product of another integer times itself. 

Perimeter  The distance around the outside of a planar object or a plane figure is its perimeter. 

Perpendicular  At right angles. 

Phi  The twentyfirst letter of the Greek alphabet. 

Pi  The constant ratio of circumference to diameter is represented by the 16th letter of the Greek alphabet; it is approximately 3.14159. 

Plane  An infinite expanse of points in two dimensions. 

Plus  A symbol for addition, or the operation itself. 

Point  A location of infinitesimal size, that is, no size. A mathematical idea. 

Positive  Real values are Positive when they are greater than zero. 

Power  Power most often means the value of an exponent. In advanced mathematics, a type of series where an infinite number of terms are raised to successive integer powers. 

Precision  The quality of finer measurement or estimation is termed Precision.  
Prime Factorization  The process of finding the prime factors of a composite number is called Prime Factorization.  
Prime Number  A positive integer with exactly two unique integer factors, 1 and itself, is considered a Prime Number. 

Principal  An amount, typically money, upon which the time value of money (accumulation of an added percentage over a defined time) generates interest is termed Principal. 

Probability  The likelihood of an event or particular outcome is its Probability. All Probabilities are between 0 and 1 (between zero percent and 100 percent). 

Product  The result of the operation of multiplication is called a Product. We multiply two or more factors to obtain a product, and those factors may be multiplied in any order. 

Proper Subset  A set that is a subset of a given set and not identical to the given set is a Proper Subset of the given set. 

Proportional  When we compare two values, if one value increases or decreases at a rate that when compared to the other is fixed or constant, the two values are said to be proportional. Two variables or two sets of values are proportional if their ratio is constant. 

Psi  The 23rd letter (nexttolast) of the Greek alphabet. 

Pythagorean Triple  A series of three integers for whom the Pythagorean relation holds, as 345 or 51213, because 3² + 4² = 5² and 5² + 12² = 13². 

Quadrangle  Another name for a quadrilateral, a foursided polygon. 

Quadruple  A verb or noun; to multiply by four or the fourth integral multiple, respectively. 

Quartiles  Most generally, the 25th and 75th percentiles are termed the Low Quartile and High Quartile, respectively. 

Quintiles  Most generally, the 20th and 80th percentiles are termed the Low Quintile and High Quintile, respectively. 

Quintuple  A verb or noun; to multiply by five or the fifth integral multiple, respectively. 

Quotient  The result of the operation of division, the Quotient results from dividing a dividend by a divisor; also the value of a fraction that is always numerator divided by denominator. 

Radical  A root symbol. Strictly, the radical is the type of root, with the number of the root expressed as an index and an absence of an index indicating a square root; the radicand is the number expressed within the radical. Informally, simply a square root. 

Radicand  A number taken to a root is a Radicand; the number under a root sign or written inside a Radical.  
Radius  Onehalf the diameter of a circle is the Radius. It is the distance from the center of a circle to any point on the circle. 

Range  We may speak of a Range of values as simply the difference between high and low values of a data set. More specifically, the values generated by the input of domain values into a function map into the Range of values of the function. 

Ratio  Sometimes Ratio is meant to state a constant proportion. More generally, the Ratio of two real values is the quotient that results from dividing one number by the other. 

Rational  A Rational number can be expressed as the ratio of two integers. When expressed as a decimal, a Rational number will either repeat or terminate (with repeating zeros). 

Rational Expression  Mathematical statements written as fractions with a numerator and a denominator are often termed Rational Expressions. 

Ray  A set of collinear points, a Ray has an endpoint and proceeds infinitely far in a single direction. 

Real Number  Situated on the Real Number line, a real value is either less than, equal to, or greater than every other real value. 

Reciprocal  Every nonzero real value has a Reciprocal. A number and its Reciprocal multiply to one. We may find a Reciprocal of a number by dividing it into 1. 

Rectangle  An equiangular quadrilateral (four 90degree interior angles) is a rectangle, with many special properties, including opposite sides parallel, opposite sides congruent, and congruent diagonals that bisect one another.  
Relatively Prime  Two integers with no common factors other than one are said to be Relatively Prime. 

Remainder  When a divisor does not divide evenly into the dividend, we have a Remainder. 

Revolutions per Minute  Abbreviated "rpm," it conveys the number of complete circular rotations that occur every 60 seconds at some constant rate of revolution. 

Right Angle  An angle of 90 degrees or pi/2 radians. Perpendicular lines meet at Right Angles. 

Right Triangle  A triangle with a right angle (90 degrees). 

Root (Number)  The Root of a given Number is the value that raised to the power of the root returns the given number.  
Rounding  Rounding is a process by which we express a real number to an approximate number whose value typically ends with one or more zeroes, hence the term "rounding." It makes sense to think of rounded numbers as most generally equal to multiples of ten or multiples of various powers of ten  
Sample  When we Sample a population we typically seek a representative Sample. 

Sample Space  We often use Sample Space to designate all the possibilities of potential outcomes for an event, process or operation. 

Scientific Notation  Scientific Notation is an easy way to represent either very large numbers or very small numbers. Large numbers are expressed with positive powers of ten; small numbers are expressed with negative powers of ten. Such numbers often represent physical quantities or values that would be inconvenient or cumbersome to write with typical decimal representations. 

Second (Time)  One sixtieth of a minute, or 1/3600 of an hour, is one Second of Time. 

Second, Degree  While "second degree" applies to a polynomial, a single Second with respect to Degree measure is onesixtieth of one minute, or one sixtieth of one sixtieth of one degree, or 1/1,296,000 of a revolution. 

Second, Time  One sixtieth of a minute, or 1/3600 of an hour, is one Second of Time. 

Segment, Circle  A portion of a circle bounded by a chord and the circle itself. 

Segment, Line  A Line Segment is a set of collinear points bounded on both ends with, literally, endpoints. 

Semicircle  Half a circle; the portion of a circle on one side of a diameter. 

Set  Any collection of objects or values is considered a Set, whose cardinal number is the number of objects in the Set.  
Significant Digits  Informally, Digits that are not zero. Slightly more formally, nonzero Digits as well as zeros between nonzero Digits. Strictly, the number of Digits required to express a calculated value to within the reasonable tolerance or uncertainty of calculation. 

Simplify  To express (or rewrite) in more concise terms. To make simpler. 

Slope  A number associated with a line graphed in a plane, Slope is the ratio of rise over run, an indication of the steepness of the line. We may write a line as y = mx + b and use the value of m for Slope. 

Solution  Too often in math class, "the answer." More directly, a Solution is a value (or set of values) that makes a mathematical statement true. 

Solution Set  Strictly, any Solution is a Solution Set, the value(s) that make a mathematical statement true. 

Speed  A (typically fixed) ratio of length or distance to a unit of time; Speed is a scalar value, as in miles per hour (mph) or feet per second (fps). 

Square  1 (noun)  the regular quadrilateral that is both equilateral and equiangular. 2 (noun)  the result of multiplying a number times itself. 3 (verb)  the operation of multiplying a number times itself; equivalently raising it to second power, or to the exponent 2. 

Square Root  Given a real value, the number that times itself (squared) produces the given value.  
StemandLeaf Plot  A graphical device to group statistical data, typically by leading digits. 

Strict Inequality  A Strict Inequality is an inequality that does not include an "or equal to...". Strict inequality only apply to unequal values, as one is either greater than (>) or less than (<) the other. 

Subset  Every set is a Subset of itself. A Subset has elements all contained in a "parent" set. 

Subtraction  The operation we begin thinking of as "take away" or "minus" is a way to find the difference between values. 

Sum  The result of addition. 

Three Dimensions  The Dimensions of space or volume are Three Dimensions, typically labeled with rectangular, spherical, or cylindrical coordinates. 

Total  Total means two things in mathematics. It is the result of addition, as a sum; we add terms or addends to achieve a sum, or total. Total also means entirety or whole, as the total population, the total budget, or the total time to complete a project. 

Transitive Property  The Transitive Property is exhibited when three values are related in the following manner: If A = B and B = C, then A = C. The relation need not be equality. So if A < B and B is < C, then A < C. 

Trapezium  In the United States, a quadrilateral with no parallel sides; in other Englishspeaking countries, what Americans term a trapezoid, a quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides. 

Trapezoid  A quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides (U.S.); the same figure is a trapezium in some other Englishspeaking countries.  
Triangle  A threesided polygon. Triangles are either acute, right, or obtuse. 

Triple  As a verb, Triple means to multiply by three. As a noun, the result from multiplication by three. 

Truncation  Replace the lesser digits of some number with zeros with no regard for rounding; this is Truncation. 

Two Dimensions  A plane has Two Dimensions. Planar figures are Two Dimensional. 

Uniform  Constant and unchanging; fixed. 

Union  The Union of two or more sets is the set of elements from all the sets. The Union of sets A and B is literally the set "A and B." 

Value  Value is worth as well as numerical equivalence. We can estimate the worth or value of a product or service. The value of pi (π) is constant, and we approximate that value when we express it as a decimal, as 3.14 or 3.14159. 

Velocity  Formally a vector in physics, Velocity has both magnitude (speed) and direction, as in miles per hour (mph) northwest (NW) or feet per second (fps) upward.  
Venn Diagram  Most often graphics of overlapping circles and ovals, a Venn Diagram depicts sets, subsets, and their intersections and unions. 

Vertex  A "corner" of a polygon is a Vertex; an extremum of a conic section is a Vertex; the endpoint(s) of rays that form an angle is a Vertex. 

Vertical  Straight up, perpendicular to horizontal, is Vertical. Vertical lines have an indeterminate or infinite slope. 

Volume  The extent to which an object fills units of threedimensional space is its Volume. 

Weighted Average  When several factors comprise a score or calculation and the factors have different amounts of importance to the overall result, a Weighted Average may be calculated by assigning more importance (or "weight") to one factor over another. 

Whole Numbers  Most often, the set of positive integers and zero. 

yIntercept  The point where a function graph crosses (intersects) the yaxis is termed the yIntercept. In the familiar linear equation form (SlopeIntercept form) of y = mx + b, the value of b is the yIntercept. 

Zero  The only real value that is neither negative nor positive. It is an integer value. Zero is also the identity value for addition. 
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