# ALGEBRA GLOSSARY

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Title Description
Cardinal Number The number of objects or elements within a set is the Cardinal Number of the set.
Cartesian Coordinates The familiar x-y coordinate plane is called the plane of Cartesian Coordinates; it is named for Rene Descartes.
Cartesian Plane The Cartesian Plane contains the familiar x-axis and y-axis in which we plot ordered pairs.
It is the familiar Rectangular Coordinate system.
Change-of-Base Formula There is an easy way to change the bases between logarithms.
A simple formula, the Change-of-Base formula is an acquired taste.
Chi The twenty-second letter of the Greek alphabet.
Closed Interval A segment of the real number line including the endpoints.
Coefficient A number that indicates the multiple of an algebraic term.
Coefficient Matrix A matrix comprised of coefficients which can be used to solve a system of equations.
Cofactor Typically the result of taking a determinant, it is a number associated with an element in a matrix.
Column, Matrix Strictly speaking, a Column Matrix is often a single column.
More generally, a column is a vertical array of elements within a matrix.
Combinations Combinations are calculated to be the number of ways that a number of objects may be selected from a group of objects.
Combinatorics The branch of math that provides calculations for the selection of a number of elements from a set is called Combinatorics.
Common Logarithm The base-ten logarithm is often called the Common Logarithm.
Common Ratio In a geometric progression, subsequent terms are obtained by multiplication of terms by a constant called the Common Ratio.
Complement of an Event The complement of an event pertains to probability.
If the probability of an event is x, then the probability of the complement of that event is 100 percent minus x.
Complex Conjugate The Complex Conjugate of (a + bi) is (a - bi).
The Complex Conjugate of (c - di) is (c + di).
Complex Number All numbers, as it turns out, are complex.
When the "imaginary part" has a zero coefficient, the number is purely real.
Complex Plane The complex number plane is required to map or plot complex numbers because the complex numbers themselves have two components.
Composite Number Composite Numbers relate to positive integers that are not prime.
If a positive integer has factors other than itself and one, it is a Composite Number.
Compound Interest When the Time Value of Money generates interest and that interest is added to the principal to increase the amount of money to which subsequent interest is added, this is Compound Interest.
Computation Computation is the act of taking values and logical mathematical steps to make a calculation.
Conclusion When mathematical conclusions are valid the laws of math and science have been adhered to, and a logical approach has been taken.
Sometimes conclusions are invalid because scientific or mathematic rigor has not been adhered to.
Reason and judgment are often important to reaching sound or valid conclusions.
Conic Section Any of the various geometric entities that are formed by slicing a cone (or double cone) are termed Conic Sections.
The list includes: circles, ellipses, parabolas, and hyperbolas.
Conjugates Conjugates multiply to simpler entities based on changing the operator between terms of each conjugate from positive to negative, or vice versa.
Consistent System of Equations When a system of equations has at least one solution (and most often a unique solution) the equations are said to be Consistent.
Constant A mathematical value that never changes is said to be constant.
Real numbers are constants because their value never changes.
In a polynomial, a term with a variable (or variables) raised to the zero power is constant.
Continuous A function is considered Continuous if its graph has no gaps, no holes, no steps, and no cusps or discontinuities.
Continuous Compounding When an entity experiences Continuous Compounding it grows unceasingly and constantly, that is, the addition of some portion of its size to its size happens all of the time.
Bacterial growth and population growth are often considered to be functions of Continuous Compounding.
Continuous Function When the graph of a function has no holes, no gaps, no steps, or no discontinuities, then it is considered Continuous.
It may have cusps.
Coordinate A value associated with the location of a point is a Coordinate.
In one dimension a Coordinate is a single value.
In two dimensions, a point is defined by two Coordinates as an ordered pair.
Coordinate Plane Two-dimensional entities are graphed or plotted in a plane, such as the rectangular plane or Cartesian Plane.
Two-dimensional polar coordinates are also plotted in a plane.
It requires an ordered pair to specify a location in a plane.
Correlation When two variables have a strong linear relationship, either increasing proportionally or one variable decreasing as the other increases, we say there is (strong) Correlation between the variables.
Correlation Coefficient We typically use "r" for the Correlation Coefficient.
When two variables are strongly correlated, that is, have a strong linear relationship, r will have a value that approaches either 1 or -1, depending on whether the variables increase with respect to each other.
Countable In common language, countable just means reasonably enumerated or countable, as in there are not too many objects to physically count.
In human terms, the grains of sand in the Sahara Desert are not countable.
But mathematically they actually are.
So Countable means something a little different to the mathematicians.
Cramer's Rule Cramer's Rule provides a matrix manipulation to solve simultaneous equations.
Cross Product A product of vectors that generates another vector is often a Cross Product.
Cube Root The Cube Root of a real value is the number that when raised to the third power equates to the original real value.
Cubic A Cubic is a third-order polynomial.

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