ADVANCED ALGEBRA GLOSSARY
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Title  Description  

Sample  When we Sample a population we typically seek a representative Sample. 

Sample Space  We often use Sample Space to designate all the possibilities of potential outcomes for an event or process. 

Scalar  A value with unit of size (magnitude) and no direction is termed a Scalar. Contrast with a vector that has both magnitude and direction; a Scalar has magnitude but no direction. 

Scalar Product  A Product of vector multiplication, such as a dot product, that results in a value that is Scalar with size (magnitude) but no associated direction. 

Scatterplot  A planar plot of points from two variables with each point representative of a datum from both variables, most often with some relation or correlation. 

Second, Degree  While "second degree" applies to a polynomial, a single Second with respect to Degree measure is onesixtieth of one minute, or one sixtieth of one sixtieth of one degree, or 1/1,296,000 of a revolution. 

SecondOrder Polynomial  A polynomial in which the highestorder term is of order two. 

Sequence  Informally, any series is a Sequence. More formally, any series of terms that adheres or conforms to a pattern. 

Series  Most often a sequence of terms to be summed. Informally, any sequence of terms may be a Series. 

Set  Any collection of objects or values is considered a Set, whose cardinal number is the number of objects in the Set. 

Set Intersection  The Intersection of two (or more) Sets is the subset common to both (or all) Sets. Logically, the Intersection of two Sets A and B is literally the Set of "A and B." 

Set Union  The Union of two (or more) Sets is the Set that contains both (or all) Sets. Logically, the Union of two Sets A and B is the Set of elements contained in either Set A or B, literally "A or B." 

Sigma  The 18th letter of the Greek alphabet, uppercase sigma is used for summation notation, lowercase Sigma often denotes a standard deviation in statistics. 

Sigma Notation  Literally summation Notation, Sigma Notation employs an iterative mechanism around an uppercase Sigma to express the sum of a series or sequence of terms. 

Significant Digits  Informally, Digits that are not zero. Slightly more formally, nonzero Digits as well as zeros between nonzero Digits. Strictly, the number of Digits required to express a calculated value to within the reasonable tolerance or uncertainty of calculation. 

Simple Harmonic Motion  Periodic Motion with constant length of cycle time (a fixed period) is termed Simple Harmonic Motion. 

Simultaneous Equations  Equations with common solutions are Simultaneous Equations. Also, equivalent equalities (statements with equal signs) may be termed Simultaneous Equations. 

Singular Matrix  A square Matrix with no inverse is termed a Singular Matrix. 

Sinusoid  A sine wave is called a Sinusoid; a cosine graph is also a Sinusoid. 

Skew  Lines neither intersecting nor parallel (noncoplanar lines) are termed Skew lines. 

Slope  A number associated with a line graphed in a plane, Slope is the ratio of rise over run, an indication of the steepness of the line. We may write a line as y = mx + b and use the value of m for Slope. 

SlopeIntercept Equation of a Line  The familiar y = mx + b, where m represents Slope and b is the yIntercept. 

Solid  A threedimensional geometric figure or body that includes the interior region. 

Solid of Revolution  When a function is rotated around an axis (of Revolution) it generates a Solid of Revolution. 

Solution  Too often in math class, "the answer." More directly, a Solution is a value (or set of values) that makes a mathematical statement true. 

Solution Set  Strictly, any Solution is a Solution Set, the value(s) that make a mathematical statement true. 

Speed  A (typically fixed) ratio of length or distance to a unit of time; Speed is a scalar value, as in miles per hour (mph) or feet per second (fps). 

Sphere  A threedimensional figure comprised of points equidistant from a center point; a Sphere has a fixed radius. 

Spherical Geometry  Unlike plane Geometry, Spherical Geometry is not based on the parallel postulate. Many of our accepted geometric theorems, principles, and tenets (from plane Geometry) simply do not hold in Spherical Geometry. 

Spherical Trigonometry  Unlike plane Trigonometry, elementary Spherical Trigonometry is three dimensional. If based in spherical geometry, the math of Spherical Trig gets downright grisly. 

Spheroid  An oblate sphere. Sometimes, an ellipsoid. 

Spiral  Sometimes Spiral is used to describe a helix. A genuine Spiral is a plane figure of changing radius from a (usually fixed) origin. 

Square Matrix  A Square Matrix has the same number of rows as columns. 

SSS Congruence  Two triangles whose corresponding sides are congruent are themselves congruent. 

SSS Similarity  When corresponding sides of two triangles are in a fixed ratio the triangles are similar. 

Standard Equation of a Line  When expressing the Equation of a Line with integral coefficients we may have the Standard Equation of a Line. 

Standard Position  An angle in Standard Position has been rotated counterclockwise (for positive rotation) from an initial ray on the positive xaxis. 

Step Function  A discontinuous Function where the range jumps in increments (usually fixed) may be a Step Function. 

Straight Angle  An angle of 180 degrees or pi radians. 

Subset  Every set is a Subset of itself. A Subset has elements all contained in a "parent" set. 

Supplementary  Supplementary angles sum to 180 degrees, or pi radians. 

Symmetry  Having a like but reversed profile or image (a mirror image) about a line is having the quality of Symmetry about the axis (of Symmetry). 

Synthetic Division  Synthetic Division is a technique to simplify the long division of polynomials. 

System of Equations  Most generally simultaneous Equations, or a set of Equations with identical variables. 
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