# MATH GLOSSARY

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Title Description
Parabola The graph of a quadratic function is a Parabola, a conic section.
Parallel Lines Coplanar Lines that never meet or cross are Parallel.
If lines simply never cross, they may be skew (non-coplanar).
Parallel Planes Two distinct planes, collections of flat expansion of points, that never meet are considered Parallel Planes.
Parallel Postulate Given a line and a specific point not on the line, there is only one line through the specific point parallel to the given line.
Parallelepiped A shoebox is a Parallelepiped.
Any geometric body with six faces that are each parallelograms that are in planes parallel to the opposite face.
Parallelogram A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides is a Parallelogram; it has many dependable properties.
Parametric Equation In a general sense, we have a Parametric Equation when we define something in specific terms of something else.
Parentheses Symbols ( ) serve to isolate or group written entities.
Partial Derivative The derivative with respect to a single variable is a Partial Derivative.
Partial Differential Equation A Differential Equation with a Partial derivative.
Partial Fraction A Fraction built from the decomposition of other terms.
Partial Sum A Partial Sum occurs when we sum only a finite number of terms from a larger or infinite series of terms.
Pascal's Triangle Pascal's Triangle is an important device for understanding binomial expansion and combinatorics.
Pentagon A five-sided polygon.
Percent Literally, per hundred.
Percentage Any reference to percent is a Percentage; the fraction of 100 a value represents.
Percentile Certain types of data lend themselves to description by what percent of the values exceed (or fall below) a specific data value.
A Percentile states what percent of the data is less than the specific data value.
Perfect Square Most generally a Perfect Square is an integer that is the product of another integer times itself.
Perimeter The distance around the outside of a planar object or a plane figure is its perimeter.
Period Measured in time, or angle, or even sometimes distance, the Period of a repetitive function is the time (or angle or distance) it takes to complete a cycle.
Periodic Functions that repeat a cycle over and over again are considered Periodic.
Permutation A specific order to the grouping of objects in a combination is termed a Permutation.
Perpendicular At right angles.
Perpendicular Bisector A line segment (or side of a polygon) has a unique line through its midpoint perpendicular to the line segment (or side).
Phase Shift This applies to sinusoids moved left or right by a change to the argument (the angle).
Phi The twenty-first letter of the Greek alphabet.
Pi The constant ratio of circumference to diameter is represented by the 16th letter of the Greek alphabet; it is approximately 3.14159.
Piecewise Literally taken in sections or pieces.
Piecewise Continuous Function When a function is defined over an interval of the domain by different relations to the dependent variable we call it a Piecewise Continuous Function.
Plane An infinite expanse of points in two dimensions.
Plane Geometry Basic geometry is Plane Geometry.
We hold to the parallel postulate and Euclidean principles.
Plus A symbol for addition, or the operation itself.
Point A location of infinitesimal size, that is, no size.
A mathematical idea.
Point-
Polar Complex Number We may express complex numbers in trigonometric form.
Polar Coordinates In labeling a point in a plane we need two coordinates.
In Polar Coordinates we use a radius and an angle, as (r, theta).
Polar-Rectangular Conversion An algorithm for changing (r, theta) to (x, y).
Polygon A closed plane figure with straight sides.
Polyhedron A geometric solid with faces that are polygons.
Polynomial A series of terms (or a single term, a monomial), usually with at least one variable; terms are separated by plus signs or minus signs.
Population Statistically when we sample a Population we generally seek a representative sample.
A Population is the group from which we take a sample.
Positive Real values are Positive when they are greater than zero.
Postulate A far-reaching conjecture or sense of reasoning for which an obvious and substantive base appears most reasonable.
Power Power most often means the value of an exponent.
Power Rule A simple device in calculus to determine the derivative of a monomial.
Precision The quality of finer measurement or estimation is termed Precision.
Prime Factorization The process of finding the prime factors of a composite number is called Prime Factorization.
Prime Number A positive integer evenly divisible by itself and one but no other integers is considered a Prime Number.
Principal An amount, typically money, upon which the time value of money (accumulation of an added percentage over a defined time) generates interest is termed Principal.
Prism A Prism is a geometric solid with two congruent polygons within parallel bases connected by faces that are parallelograms.
Probability The likelihood of an event or particular outcome is its Probability.
All Probabilities are between 0 and 1 (between zero percent and 100 percent).
Product The result of the operation of multiplication is called a Product.
Product Rule An algorithm within the calculus to find the derivative of the Product of two functions.
Projectile Motion Projectile Motion is a parabolic arc caused by gravity.
Proof An ingredient in pudding.
Proper Subset A set that is a subset of a given set and not identical to the given set is a Proper Subset of the given set.
Proportional In a (constant) ratio.
Psi The 23rd letter (next-to-last) of the Greek alphabet.
Pure Imaginary Number Given a complex number of the form a + bi, when a = 0 we say that the number is a Pure (or purely) Imaginary Number.
Pyramid A geometric solid with a base of a polygon and planar lateral sides that meet at a point called an apex is termed a Pyramid.
Pythagorean Identities sin²x + cos²x = 1; 1 + tan²x = sec²x; 1 + cot²x = csc²x
Pythagorean Triple A series of three integers for whom the Pythagorean relation holds, as 3-4-5 or 5-12-13, because 3² + 4² = 5² and 5² + 12² = 13².

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# Math Glossary

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